Pium was an important center of rock crystal and gold mining and it played an important role in the history of the state's emancipation. After harboring one of the largest rock crystal mines, in the 1940s, the city of Pium now is ready to become a new frontier of ecological tourism in Tocantins. It is considered the gateway to two important ecological sanctuaries of the state: The Ilha do Bananal and Cantão. Pium is located in the fertile valley of the Araguaia, and is one of the largest municipalities in the state. The city was also a stage for important political movements and sagas, such as the struggle for the emancipation of the Tocantins State. One of its most prominent participants was the influential journalist Trajano Coelho Neto and politician Souza Porto.